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Full text of "IS 15517: Gaseous Fire Extinguishing Systems--HFC 227ea (Hepta Fluoro Propane) Extinguishing Systems"

**************** 




Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information 

Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to 
information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, 
in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority, 
and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest 
to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of 
education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the 
timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public. 




Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan 
"The Right to Information, The Right to Live" 



IS 15517 (2004, Reaffirmed 2010) : Gaseous Fire 
Extinguishing Systems--HFC 227ea (Hepta Fluoro Propane) 
Extinguishing Systems. ICS 13.220.10 




Jawaharlal Nehru 
'Step Out From the Old to the New' 



■K^y / 1 juaaaws^fea rs^^TTF^ 



2*S< W I *>S*V2^NK^ 



^frcvvv^ 



Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda 
Invent a New India Using Knowledge 



?TR TJ^ ^TT teMHI | ^t ^Wt ^m\ ^f ^TT ^T^?TT \' 

Bhartrhari — Nitisatakam 
"Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen" 




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• 




IS 15517: 2004 



Mm 3#h wh WM - 

Indian Standard 

GASEOUS FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 
HFC 227ea ( HEPTA FLUORO PROPANE ) 
EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 



REAFFIRMED 



ICS 13.220.10 



©BIS 2004 

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 

MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG 
NEW DELHI 1 10002 

September 2004 Price Group 7 



Fire Fighting Sectional Committee, CED 22 



FOREWORD 

This Indian Standard was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft finalized by the Fire 
Fighting Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civi! Engineering Division Council. 

It is important that the fire protection of a building or part be considered as a whole. HFC 227ea total flooding 
systems form only a part, though an important part, of the available facilities. However, it should not be 
assumed that their adoption necessarily removes the need to consider supplementary measures, such as 
provision of portable fire extinguishers or mobile appliances for first aid or emergency use, or measures to deal 
with special hazards. 

HFC 227ea is recognized as effective for extinguishing Class A and Class B fires and fires where electrical risks are 
present. It does not cover the design of explosion suppression systems. "Nevertheless, it should not be 
forgotten in the planning of comprehensive schemes that there may be hazards for which this technique is not 
suitable. 

Agent dump/discharge test be replaced by enclosure integrity test unless required by legal requirement. 
Complete system should be approved by any recognized/independent authority. 



AMENDMENT NO. 2 JANUARY 2009 

TO 

IS 15517 : 2004 GASEOUS FIRE EXTINGUISHING 

SYSTEMS — HFC 227ea (HEPTA FLUORO PROPANE) 

EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

{Page 1, clause 4.5, line 3) — Substitute 'HFC 227ea'/or 'HFC Lea'. 
{Page 2, clause 4.6, Table 3): 

a) SI No. (iii) — Substitute '- \3\.l°C*for '<131.1°C\ 

b) SI No. (iv) — Substitute '(absolute)' for '0.391 MPa\ 

{Page 2, Table 4, col. 3) — Against the values of NOAEL, LOAEL and 
LC 50 , add the v/ords 'by volume' against each and against LC50, add the word 
'percent' also. 

[Page 2, Table 5, SI No. (i)] — Substitute the following for the existing: 



SI 

No. 


Property 


Values 


2.5 MPa 


4.2 MPa 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


•) 


Maximum fill density 


1150kg/m 3 


1 150kg/m 3 



{Page 5, clause 7.2(a) — Substitute 'f for T. 

where '/' is the minimum anticipated temperature in °C inside the 
enclosure intended to be protected. 

{Page 5, clause 7.3) — Delete ' K s ' and its corresponding definition. 



(CED 22) 



Reprography Unit, BIS, New Delhi, India 



AMENDMENT NO. 1 SEPTEMBER 2007 

TO 

IS 15517 : 2004 GASEOUS FIRE EXTINGUISHING 

SYSTEMS — HFC 227ea (HEPTA FLUORO 

PROPANE) EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

{Page 1, Table 1, col 2) — Substitute 'Hepta Fluoro Propane - 
I J, 1,2,3,3,3' for 'Hepta Fluoro Propane 1 . 

[Page 2, clause 4.7, Table 4, SI No. (iii), col 3] — Substitute '>80%' for 
4 >80\ 

[/>tfge 2, c/aw^e 4,8, Table 5, SI No. (i), co/ 3 a/wf 4] — Substitute M 150 

kg/m^for'L)5kg/m T . 

[Page 3, clause 5.1(d)] — Insert the following matter at the end: 

'e) HFC 227ea system for spaces that are normally occupied and designed to 
concentrations above the NOAEL shall be permitted, if means are provided 
to limit exposure to the design concentrations shown in Table 8(b).' 

(Page 3, Fig. 1) — Substitute <S = 01269+0.0005' /»' 'S = 0.12632 + 
0.000514'. 

(Page 4, clause 6, lines 6 and 7) — Substitute 'IS 15493 ; 2004' for 
'relevant specifications'. 

(Page 5 Table 8) — Renumber the existing Table 8 as '8A' and insert the 
following Table 8B: 



Amend No, 1 to IS 15517 : 2004 

Table 8B Time for Safe Human Exposure at Stated Concentration 

forHFC227ea 

[Clause 5.1(e)] 



HFC 227ea Concentration 


Human Exposure Time 


Percent, v/v 


ppm 


(Min) 


9.0 


90 000 


5.00 


9.5 


95 000 


5.00 


10.0 


100 000 


5.00 


10.5 


105 000 


5.00 


11.0 


110000 


1.13 


11.5 


115 000 


0.60 


12.0 


120 000 


0.49 



NOTE — Data derived from EPA approved and peer-reviewed PBPK model or its equipment. 

[Page 7, clause 8(e)(1)] — Substitute 'Design concentration' for 
* Minimum concentration'. 

[Page 7, clause 8(e)(2), line 6] — Substitute safety factor '20 percent'/ '* 
4 10 percent'. 

(Page 7, Table 10 ? col 3) — Substitute the following for the existing: 



Percent by Volume 




(3) 




6.2 to 


7.0 


7.6 to 


11.05 


7.15 to 


8.0 


9.9 to 


13.52 


8.0 to 


8.6 


8.6 to 


8.71 



(CED 22) 



Reprography Unit BIS, New Delhi, India 



IS 15517 : 2004 



Indian Standard 

GASEOUS FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 
HFC 227ea ( HEPTA FLUORO PROPANE ) 
EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 



1 SCOPE 

1.1 This standard sets out specific requirements 
for the design and installation of total flooding 
fire-extinguishing systems employing HFC 227ea 
( Hepta fluoro propane ) gas extinguishant. This 
standard is applicable to single supply as well as 
distributed supply systems. 

1.2 This standard complements various general 
requirements applicable to all types of gaseous 
fire-extinguishing systems ( Halocarbon as well as 
Inert gas systems ) listed in IS 15493. As such, both 
these standards should be read together before 
designing a system. Where requirements in both the 
standards differ, this standard shall take precedence. 

1.3 This standard covers systems operating at 
nominal pressures of 2.5 MPa and 4.2 MPa only. 

2 REFERENCES 

The standards given below contain provisions, which 
through reference in this text, constitute provisions 
of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions 
indicated were valid. All standards are subject to 
revision and parties to agreements based on this 
standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility 
of applying the most recent editions of the standards 
indicated below: 

IS No. Title 

7285 : 1988 Specification for seamless steel 

cylinders for permanent and high 
pressure liquefiable gases ( second 
revision ) 

15493:2004 Gaseous fire extinguishing 
systems — General requirements 

3 GENERAL INFORMATION 

3.1 Application 

3.1.1 HFC 227ea total flooding system is designed 
to develop a controlled atmosphere in an enclosed 
space and extinguishes the fires by physically 
cooling the fuel and by the production of free radicals 
which chemically interfere with the combustion 
process. The appropriate HFC 227ea concentration 
shall also be maintained until the temperature 



within the enclosure has fallen below the reignition 
point. 

3.1.2 The minimum HFC 227ea concentration 
necessary to extinguish a flame has been determined 
by experiments for several surface-type fires 
particularly those involving liquids and gases. For 
deep-seated fires, longer soaking times may be 
necessary but are difficult to predict. 

3.1.3 It is important that extinguishing 
concentrations are not only achieved but also 
maintained for a sufficient period of time to allow 
effective emergency action by trained personnel. 
This is equally important in all classes of fires 
since a persistent ignition source can lead to a 
recurrence of the initial event once the HFC 227ea has 
dissipated. 

4 GAS CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES 

4.1 HFC 227ea is a colourless, electrically non- 
conductive gas with a density approximately six times 
that of air. 

4.2 HFC 227ea total flooding system can be used to 
extinguish all classes of fires except Class D fires. 
Information on use and limitations of HFC 227ea is 
available in IS 15493 ( see also 1.2 ). 

4.3 The details of chemical formulae of 
HFC 227ea gas is as shown in Table 1. 

Table 1 Composition of HFC 227ea Gas 



Chemical Formula 


Chemical Name 


(1) 


(2) 


HFC-227ea 


Hepta Fluoro 


(CF 3 CHFCF,) 


Propane 



4.4 HFC 227ea is a gas that can be stored as a 
liquid in a suitable pressurized container. The 
pressure in the container depends upon the ambient 
temperature. At 20°C, the pressure is 4.2 MPa. At 
30°C, the pressure is 4.54 MPa and at 0°C the 
pressure is 3.71 MPa. 

4.5 HFC 227ea gas shall comply with the 
specification as shown in Table 2. The purity of 
HFCLea shall be determined in accordance 



1 



IS 15517 : 2004 



with Annex A. 

Table 2 Specification for HFC227ea Gas 



SI No. 


Specification 


Requirement 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


i) 


Purity 1 ) 


99.6 percent by mass, Min 


ii) 


Moisture 


10 x 10 -6 by mass, Max 


ill) 


Acidity 


3 x 10" 6 by mass, Max 


iv) 


Non-volatile residue 


0.0 1 percent by mass, Max 


v) 


Suspended matter or 
sediment 

See Annex A. 


None visible 



4.6 Physical properties of HFC 227ea gas are shown 
in Table 3. 

Table 3 Physical Properties of HFC 227ea Gas 



SI No. 


Property 


Value 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


') 


Molecular weight 


170 


ii) 


Boiling point at 0.101 3 MPa 
( Absolute ) 


- 16.4°C 


iii) 


Freezing point 


< 131 rc 


iv) 


Vapour pressure at 20°C 


0.391 MPa 


v) 


Specific volume of superheated 
vapour at 1.013 bar and 20°C 
(nvVkg) 


0.137 3 


vi) 


Critical temperature 


101.7°C 


vii) 
viii) 


Critical pressure 
Critical volume 


2.912 MPa 
274 cmVmol 


ix) 


Critical density 


621 kg/m 3 


x) 


Liquid density at 20°C 


1 407 kg/m 3 


xi) 


Saturated vapour density 
at 20°C 


31.176 kg/m 3 



4.7 Toxicological information for HFC 227ea gas is 
shown in Table 4. 

Table 4 Toxicological Information 

forHFC227eaGas 



Si No. Property Value 

(I) (2) (3) 

i) No observed adverse effect level 9 percent 

( NOAEL ) 

ii) Lowest observed adverse effect 10.5 percent 

level ( LOAEL ) 

hi) LC 50 > 80 



4,8 Container Characteristics 

The maximum fill density, container-working 
pressure of the HFC 227ea cylinders shall not exceed 
the values provided in Table 5 for systems operating 
at 2.5 MPa and 4.2 MPa respectively. 



Table 5 2.5 MPa and 4.2 MPa Storage Container 
Characteristics for HFC 227ea 

(Clause 4.8) 



SI No. Property 

(1) (2) 

i) Maximum fill density 

ii) Maximum container 
working pressure at 
50°C 

Superpressurization 
at21°C 



Value 



2.5 MPa 4.2 MPa 

(3) (4) 

1.15 kg/m 2 1.15 kg/m 2 

3.4 MPa 5.3 MPa 

2.5 MPa 4.2 MPa 



NOTES 

1 For further data on pressure/temperature relationship, 
Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 should be referred. 

2 Exceeding the maximum fill density may result in 
the container becoming 'liquid full'. With the result 
that an extremely high/ rise in pressure occurs with 
small increases in temperature that could adversely 
affect the integrity of the container assembly. 



4.9 Superpressurized Nitrogen 

To allow faster flow through piping systems, the 
natural pressure of HFC 227ea is often supplemented 
with dry nitrogen. Commonly used pressures are 
respectively 2.5 MPa and 4.2 MPa measured at 20°C. 
The respective vapour pressures of HFC 227ea as well 
as dry nitrogen vary with temperature. Nitrogen is 
soluble in HFC227ea. Thus when a storage cylinder 
is pressurized with nitrogen, some dissolves in the 
liquid HFC 227ea and the rest remains in the vapour 
phase and combines with the vapour pressure of HFC 
227ea to produce the pressure necessary to propel 
the F1FC 227ea through the pipeline. Details are given 
in Table 6 ( see also Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 ). 

Table 6 Nitrogen Pre-pressurization for HFC 
227ea Containers at 20°C 



SI 


Fill Density 


Final Pressure 


Final Pressure 


No. 


kg/m 3 


4.2 MPa 


2.5 MPa 




( kg/litre ) 


Systems 


Systems 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


i) 


900 ( 0.9 ) 


29.5 


17.6 


ii) 


800 ( 0.8 ) 


30.8 


18.4 


hi) 


700 ( 0.7 ) 


32.1 


19.2 


iv) 


600 ( 0.6 ) 


33.4 


20.00 


v) 


500 ( 0.5 ) 


34,8 


20.80 



5 SAFETY OF PERSONNEL 

5.1 In addition to the provisions specified under 
IS 15493, the following requirements shall 
also apply: 



IS 15517 : 2004 





0.220 




0.214 




0.208 




0.202 




0.196 




0.190 


CO 

E 


0.184 


UJ 


0.178 


o 
> 


0.172 


0.166 


0.160 


3 


0.154 


o 

GL 


0.148 


$ 


0.142 


o 


0.136 


o 


0.130 


UJ 


0.124 


CO 


0.118 




0.112 




0.106 




0.100 

























































































































































. O A 4 ' 










b - U.IZOO^ f U.UUUD l**l 










































































111! 


■I I ll 


III! 


till 


I I I I 


III! 



-100 



-50 



50 



100 



150 



200 



TEMPERATURE (t)/C 



Fig. 1 Specific Vapour Volume of Superheated HFC 227ea Vapour at 1 00 kPa Absolute 



a) Any hazard to personnel created by the 
discharge of HFC227ea shall be given due 
consideration in the design of the system. 
Potential hazard can arise from the following: 

1) Extinguishant itself, 

2) Combustion products of the fire, and 

3) Breakdown products of the 
extinguishant resulting from 
exposure to fire. 

b) In areas, where there is a likelihood of 
significant difference between gross and net 
volumes of the enclosure, utmost care shall 
be exercised in proper system design to ensure 
that maximum concentrations as detailed 
in 5.1(c) are not exceeded. 

c) Where design concentration exceeds the 
LOAEL, HFC 227ea shall be used for total 
flooding only in normally unoccupied areas. 
For minimum safety requirements see 5 of 
IS 15493. 

d) Safety limits and also minimum safety 
precautions that are associated with the use 
of HFC 227ea are as shown in the Tables 7 
and 8. 



5.2 Miscellaneous Hazards 

Some of the additional hazards are as given below: 

a) Cold temperatures — Direct contact with the 
vapourizing liquid being discharged from a 
HFC 227ea system will have a strong chilling 
effect on objects and can cause frostbite burns 
to the skin. The liquid phase vapourizes 
rapidly when mixed with air and thus limits 
the hazard to immediate vicinity of the 
discharge point. 

b) Visibility — Discharge of HFC 227ea may 
create a light mist resulting from 
condensation of moisture in the air. 
However, the mist rarely persists after 
the discharge is completed. Thus little 
hazard is created from the standpoint of 
reduced visibility. Once HFC 227ea 
is discharged into an enclosure, its 
presence is easy to detect through the normal 
senses in concentrations above about 
3 percent. 

c) Uneven distribution — In total flooding 
systems, the high density of HFC 227ea 
vapour requires the use of discharge 



IS 15517 :2004 



CL 
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V) 
CO 

lit 
<z 

CL 



15 000 



14000 



13000 



12000 



11000 



KDOOO - 



9000 _ 



8000 



7000 



6000 Er 



5000 



4000 



3000 



2000 



1000 



z 




















1 














o / 






E 














#/ 






E 




















E 




c 


YLINDE 


RFILL 


DENSIT 


y-v i 








E 




















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&7 






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/ i/ 






z 














i ^ 


/ 




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#7 






E 














/^ 


f 




E 




















| 




















z 




















tllllllll 


llllllMII 


Immiiiii 


lillllll! 


HIIIMM 


ilMMIII 


MINIMI 


lllllllll 


niiiiin 


liiiiMin 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

TEMPERATURE, C 

Fig. 2 Temperature/Pressure Variations for HFC 227ea Storage Containers 



nozzles that will achieve a well-mixed 
atmosphere in order to prevent local 
pockets of higher concentration. HFC227ea 
air mixtures are also more dense than air 
and will drift and accumulate in low spaces, 
such as cellars, pits and floor voids, and may 
be difficult to ventilate effectively. 

5.3 Where egress takes longer than 30 s but less 
than a minute, HFC 227ea agent shall not be used 
in a concentration exceeding its LOAEL, that is, 
10.5 percent. 

5.4 HFC 227ea concentrations exceeding its LOAEL, 
that is, 10.5 percent are permitted only in areas 
normally not occupied by personnel. 



6 ENCLOSURE STRENGTH AND VENTING 
FACILITIES 

Venting may be provided at levels as high as 
possible in the enclosure. Strength and allowable 
pressures for average enclosures may be in conformity 
with the following guidelines. The building 
requirements for the type of enclosure and free venting 
required can also be calculated from the relevant 
specifications. 

7 EXTINGUISHING AGENT SUPPLY 

7,1 Quantity 

a) The amount of the HFC 227ea in the system 
shall be at least sufficient for the largest 



IS 15517 : 2004 



Table 7 Minimum Safety Precautions for HFC 227ea 

[Clause 5.1(d)] 



SI No. HFC 227ea Design 

Concentration, Percent 
by Volume 



Requirements 



Inhibit Switch Egress in 30 s Safety Lock-off 

and Time Delay Maximum Interlock Valve 

(3) (4) 

V Not required 

V Not applicable 1 > 

( see 4.5 ) 

^Injected concentration levels above LOAEL are not permitted in occupied area and question of egress does not arise. 



(1) 


(2) 


i) 


Below the NOAEL 9 


ii) 


Above the LOAEL 10.5 



(5) (6) 

Not required Not required 



Table 8 Minimum Safety Limits of HFC 227ea 
[Clause 5.1(d)] 



SI No. 


Property 


Value 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


i) 


No observed adverse effect level 


9 percent 




( NOAEL ) 


by volume 


ii) 


Lowest observed adverse effect 


10.5 percent 




level ( LOAEL ) 


by volume 


iii) 


Lethal concentration LC 50 


> 80 



single hazard protected or group of 
communicating hazards that are to be 
protected simultaneously. 

b) Where required, the reserve quantity shall 
be as many multiples of the main supply as 
the appropriate authority considers necessary. 
Normally, 100 percent of the largest one 
standby supply is recommended. 

c) The quantity of the HFC 227ea required shall 
be further calculated to compensate for any 
special conditions, such as unclosable 
openings, forced ventilation, the free volume 
of air receivers that may discharge into the 
risk, altitude ( substantially above or below 
sea level ) or any other causes for the 
extinguishant loss. 

7.2 Total Flooding Quantity 

a) The amount of HFC 227ea required to 
achieve the design concentration shall be 
calculated from the following equations and 
this value shall need further adjustment as 
stated in 7.1(c). 

VxC 

M = 

S(100-C) 

total flooding quantity, kg; 

= design concentration, percent by 
volume; 

= net volume of the hazard, m 3 ; 



where 

. M 
C 



S = 



v $ 



K } + K 2 ( T), where K } and K 2 are 
constants specific to the agent 
used and T is minimum 
temperature inside enclosure; and 

specific volume of superheated 
HFC 227ea aeent at 2 1 °C, m 3 /kg. 



Specific volume constants for the HFC 227ea 
gas are AT, =0.126 9 and K 2 = 0.000 5. It may 
also be noted that this equation provides 
an allowance for the normal leakage from a 
tight enclosure to accomplish equalization 
of pressure. 

b) The agent requirement per unit volume of 
protected space can also be calculated by 
using Table 9 for various levels of 
concentration corresponding to the 
temperature within the protected 
enclosure. ( Flooding Factor obtained from 
Table 9, that is, temperature of the enclosure 
versus gas concentration, multiplied by 
net volume of the enclosure. ) 

NOTE — Quantity of the agent shall be the highest 
of the values calculated from the provisions 
contained in 7.2(a) and 7.2(b). 

7.3 Enclosure Volumes 

The net enclosure volumes are calculated using the 
following equations: 



a) 


y = y _ 

y Max ' g 


V 

s 


b) 


V = V 

Mm Max 

where 


_ v 






y 

y Max 


maximum net volume of the 
enclosure, m 3 ; 




V = 
g 


gross volume of enclosure, m 3 ; 




v. = 


volume of the structural/similar 



Min 



permanent objects in the 
enclosure that gas can not 
permeate, m 3 ; 

minimum net volume of 
enclosure considering the 



IS 15517 : 2004 



Table 9 HFC 227ea Total Flooding Quantity of Protected Volume M/V (kg/m 3 ) 

[Clause 1.2(b)] 



SI No. 


Temperature 


Specific Vapour 
Volume, m 3 /kg 




Desigi 


n Concentration 
C ( Percent by 


of HFC 227ea 
Volume) 










r 

6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(V) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


i) 


- 10 


0.121 8 


0.524 


0.618 


0.714 


0.812 


0.912 


1.015 


1.120 


ii) 


- 5 


0.124 3 


0.513 


0.605 


0.699 


0.795 


0.894 


0.994 


1.097 


iii) 





0.126 9 


0.503 


0.593 


0.685 


0.779 


0.876 


0.974 


1.075 


iv) 


5 


0.129 5 


0.493 


0.581 


0.672 


0.764 


0.858 


0.955 


1.053 


v) 


10 


0.132 


0.483 


0.570 


0.659 


0.749 


0.842 


0.936 


1.033 


vi) 


15 


0.134 6 


0.474 


0.559 


0.646 


0.735 


0.826 


0.918 


1.013 


vii) 


20 


0.137 2 


0.465 


0.549 


0.634 


0.721 


0.810 


0.901 


0.994 


viii) 


25 


0.139 7 


0.457 


0.539 


0.622 


0.708 


0.795 


0.885 


0.976 


ix) 


30 


0.142 3 


0.449 


0.529 


0.611 


0.695 


0.781 


0.869 


0.958 


x) 


35 


0.144 9 


0.441 


0.520 


0.600 


0.683 


0.767 


0.853 


0.941 


xi) 


40 


0.147 4 


0.433 


0.511 


0.590 


0.671 


0.754 


0.838 


0.925 


xii) 


45 


0.150 


0.426 


0.502 


0.580 


0.659 


0.741 


0.824 


0.909 


xiii) 


50 


0.152 6 


0.418 


0.493 


0.570 


0.648 


0.728 


0.810 


0.894 


xiv) 


55 


0.155 1 


0.411 


0.485 


0.561 


0.638 


0.716 


0.797 


0.879 


xv) 


60 


0.157 7 


0.405 


0.477 


0.551 


0.627 


0.705 


0.784 


0.865 



maximum anticipated volume 
of the occupancy related to 
the objects in the enclosure, m 3 ; 
and 

volume of the occupancy related 
objects in the enclosure that gas 
can not permeate, for example, 
furniture fittings, etc, m 3 . 
( This value shall be ignored 
if the volume is less than 
25 percent of the maximum 
net volume K Max . ) 



8 DESIGN CONCENTRATION 

a) Determination of design concentration of 
HFC 227ea shall include consideration of 
the type of combustibles involved, the 
conditions under which it normally exists 
in the enclosure, and any special conditions 
in the enclosure. The HFC 227ea system 
shall be capable of establishing uniform 
design concentration throughout the 
protected volume. 

b) The distribution system for applying 
HFC 227ea to enclosed fire.hazards shall be 
designed with due consideration of the 
materials involved, the type of fire expected 
and the nature of the enclosure, any one of 
which may affect the discharge times and rates 
of application. 



c) The minimum design concentration of 
HFC 227ea for involving surface Class A 
fires, and also fires involving flammable 
liquids and gases shall be as follows: 

1) The minimum design concentration of 
the HFC 227ea agent for Class A 
surface fire hazards shall be the 
extinguishing concentration with a 
loading of 20 percent as a safety factor 
of 1.2. 

2) The minimum design concentration of 
the HFC 227ea agent for Class B fuel 
hazards shall be the extinguishing 
concentration with a loading of 30 
percent as a safety factor of 1 .3 ( see 
Table 10 and Table 11, which includes 
20 percent loading). 

d) Requirements for flame extinguishment'. 

1) The design concentration shall be as 
shown in Table .11 forthefuel. Where 
range of separate fuels is present, the 
design concentration shall be as 
shown in Table 11 for the fuel requiring 
the greatest concentration. 

2) For other fuels of Class B not listed 
in the Table 1 1, tests shall be conducted 
in independent recognized laboratories 
for the determination of extinguishing 
concentration. This value as 
determined shall be loaded by a safety 



IS 15517: 2004 



factor of 30 percent. In no case, shall 
the design concentration be less than 
7.5 percent or such higher figure, 
determined by test as indicated above, 
e) Requirements for inert ing: 

1) Minimum concentration requirements 
for inerting atmospheres within the 
enclosure involving flammable liquids 
. and gases shall be as shown in Tablel2. 
Where range of separate fuels is present, 
the inerting concentration shall be as 
shown in Table 12 for the fuel requiring 
the greatest concentration. 

2) For other fuels not listed in Table 12, tests 
shall be conducted in independent 
recognized laboratories for the 
determination of inerting concentration. 
This value as determined from Table 12 
shall be loaded by a safety factor of 10 
percent. In no case, shall the inerting 
concentration be less than 7.5 percent 
or such higher figure, determined by 
test as indicated above. 

f) Lastly, it is required to adjust the number 
of HFC 227ea agent containers, where 
necessary, by compensating for ambient 
pressure change due to location elevation 
as per 8(g) and round off the number as 
before. The equation in such cases shall be 
as follows: 

N x = Afx Atmospheric correction factor 
where 



Table. 10 Minimum HFC 227ea Design 

Concentration for Flame Extinguishment 

(In Air at 0.1 MPa and at 20°C ) 

[ Clause 8(c) and(d) ] 



S! No. 


Material 




Percent 


by 


Weight 








Volume 


kg/nv' 


(1) 


(2) 




(3) 




(4) 


i) 


Minimum ( incl 


uding 


7.0 




■0.6 




surface Class A hazards ) 










combustible solids 










ii) 


Ethanol 




7.6 




0.419 


hi) 


Methane 




8.0 




0.360 


iv) 


Methanol 




9.9 




0.707 


v) 


/7-Heptane 




8.6 




0.360 


vi) 


Propane 




8.6 




0.360 



of the highest hazard shall not vary from 
the design concentration by more than 
one percent by volume. 

b) At 10 min of the discharge or other period 
( as required, if necessary ), the concentrations 
at the levels given in 8(a) shall be not less 
than 80 percent of the design concentration 
( Retention time ). 

10 APPLICATION RATE, DURATION OF 
DISCHARGE AND DISCHARGE TIME 

10.1 Design Application Rate 

The design application rate shall be based on the 
quantity of HFC 227ea ( M ) as per 7 and the 
duration of discharge required under 10.2. 



TV, 



adjusted number of containers, and 10.2 Duration of HFC 227ea Discharge 



N - initial number of containers 
g) Atmospheric correction factors: 

It shall be necessary to adjust the actual 
HFC 227ea agent quantity for altitude 
effects. Depending upon the altitude, 
atmospheric correction factor shall be 
applied as per the Table 13. The adjusted 
HFC 227ea agent quantity is determined by 
multiplying the number of HFC 227ea 
containers by the ratio of average ambient 
enclosure pressure to standard sea level 
pressure. 

9 POST DISCHARGE SCENARIO 

The HFC 227ea system, when tested for discharge test 
as per Annex B, shall be in accordance with the 
following requirements: 

a) Within 1 min of commencement of discharge, 
the concentrations at not more than 1 m 
above the floor of the enclosure or at the top 



The minimum theoretical concentration shall be 
achieved within 10 s and the actual injected 
concentration [ that is the above plus a suitable 
safety factor adjusted for rounding off container ] 
shall be achieved within two min. 

10.3 Discharge Time for the HFC 227ea Gas 

The discharge time shall be the time for actuation 
of the first HFC 227ea container valve to the 
achievement of the required design concentration or 
the discharge time is the interval from the first 
appearance of liquid at the nozzle to the time when 
the discharge becomes predominantly gaseous, 
recognized by a change in the appearance and 
sound of the discharge as follows: 

a) The discharge time period is defined as the 
time required to discharge from the nozzles 
90 percent of the agent mass at 2 1 °C, necessary 
to achieve the minimum design concentrat ; on 
based on a 20 percent safety factor for flame 
extinguishment. 



IS 15517 : 2004 





Table 11 HFC 227ea Flame 


Extinguishing 


; Design Concentrations ( Cup Burner ) 








[Clause 


8(c)] 






SI No. 


Material 


Percent by 
Volume 


SI No. 


Material 


Percent by 
Volume 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(!) 


(2) 


(3) 


1. 


Methyl acetate 


8.60 


45. 


Cyclohexane 


8.60 


2. 


Vinyl acetate 


10.00 


46. 


Decahydronaphthalene 


8.60 


3. 


Acetic acid ( Glacial ) 


8.60 


47. 


Decalin 


8.60 


4. 


Acetonitrile 


8.60 


48. 


Diesel fuel 250 


8.60 


5. 


Aceto Nitryl 


8.60 


49. 


Diethyl ether 


8.60 


6. 


Acetyl acetone 


8.60 


50. 


1, I-Drifluoroethane 


8.60 


7. 


Acetyl acetylene 


8.60 


51. 


Dimethyl ether 


14.50 


8. 


Acetyl ester 


8.60 


. 52. 


n, /7-Dimenthyl formamide 


10.40 


9. 


Acetylene 


17.80 


53. 


Dioxane 


12.70 


■10. 


Acetic anhydride 


8.60 


54. 


202 Dimethylpropanedo 


8.60 


11. 


Acrylic acid 


9.10 


55. 


Dovvtherm A 


8.60 


12. 


Acrylic alcohol 


10.00 


56. 


Bnergol HLP-65 


8.60 


13. 


Acrylo nirile 


9.30 . 


57. 


Energol OEM-30 


8.60 


14. 


Alcohol comm denatured 


9.80 


58. 


Epichlorohydrin 


1 1.20 


15. 


Ethyl alcohol 


9.80 


59. 


Ethane 


10.32 


16. 


Methyl alcohol 


15.48 


60. 


Ethyl acetate 


8.60 


17. 


ho- Propyl alcohol 


9.50 


61. 


Ethyl ether 


8.60 


18. 


/7- Propyl alcohol 


9.50 


62. 


Wax 


8.60 


19. 


Amyl acetate 


8.60 


63. 


Surface type Class A fires 


8.60 


20. 


ho- Amy\ acetate 


8.60 


64. 


Ethyl benzene 


8.6 


21. 


Acroleine 


17.00 


65. 


Ethyl chloride 


8.60 


22. 


Amylic alcohol 


10.00 


66. 


Ethyl fonniatie 


9.80 


23. 


Auryl acetate 


8.60 


67. 


Ethylene glycol 


11.70 


24. 


Avgas 


8.60 


68. 


Ethylene oxide 


20.30 


25. 


Avtag 


8.60 


69. 


Butyl formate 


9.30 


26. 


Avtur 


8.60 


70. 


Formic acid 


8.60 


27. 


Benzol 


9.20 


71. 


Fuel oil — JIM 


8.60 


28. 


Benzyl alcohol 


9.80 


72. 


Fuel oil— J P5 


8.60 


29. 


Bunker C 


8.60 


73. 


Gasoline (98 Octane ) 


8.60 


30. 


2-Butanone 


8.80 


74. 


Gasoline ( 94 Octane ) 


8.60 


31. 


Butyraldehyde 


10.40 


75. 


Butyl glycol 


8.60 


32. 


Butylene oxide 


13.30 


76. 


Ethyl benzene 


8.60 


33 , 


1. 3-Butadiene 


9.30 


77. 


Methyl glycol 


10.35 


34. 


/-Butane 


8.60 


78. 


Gas oil 


8.60 


35. 


n- Butane 


8.60 


79. 


/-Hexanol 


9.80 


36. 


/-Butanol 


8.60 


80. 


/7-Hexanol 


8.90 


37. 


Butanol 


8.60 


81. 


Hydraulic jack oil 


8.60 


38. 


/-Butene 


8.60 


82. 


Hydrogen 


48.16 


39. 


Butyl acetate 


8.60 


83. 


Jet A 


8.60 


40. 


Butyl alcohol 


9.50 


84. 


Kerosene 


8.60 


41. 


Carbon disulfide 


8.60 


85. 


Methyl isobutyl ketone 


8.60 


42. 


Carbon monoxide 


8.60 


86. 


Methylated spirits 


9.50 


43. 


Chlorobenzene 


8.60 


87. 


Methyl amine 


12.00 


44. 


Cyclopentane 


8.60 


88. 


Methyl benzoate 


8.60 



IS 15517: 2004 



Table 11 (Concluded ) 



SI No. 


Material 


Percent by 
Volume 


SI No. 


Material 


Percent by 
Vo 1 u m e 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


O) 


(2) 


(3) 


89. 


Methyl ether ketone 


8.60 


108. 


Propalactene 




90. 


Methyl formiate 


10.00 


109. 


/7-PropanoI 


9.10 


91. 


Methyl methacrylate 


12.80 


110. 


Iso- Propyl amine 


8.60 


92. 


Naptha 


13.80 


111. 


/.voPropyl nitrate 


17.70 


93. 


Natural gas 


10.30 


112. 


Iso- Propyl oxide 


8.60 


94. 


Navy distillate 


8.60 


113. 


Propylene 


8.90 


95. 


Nitromethane 


15.80 


114. 


Propylene oxide 


22.20 


96. 


Octane 


8.60 


115. 


Pyridine 


8.60 


97. 


Cyclo-Pentane 


8.60 


116. 


Shell thermia 


8.60 


98. 


/so-Pentane 


8.60 


117. 


Stoddart solvent 


8.60 


99. 


Neo-Pentane 


8.60 


118. 


Styrene 


8.60 


100. 


Nor-Pentane 


8.60 


119. 


Styrolene 


8.60 


101. 


Petroleum ether 


8.60 


120. 


Sulphur 


8.60 


102. 


Polyester 


8.60 


121. 


Tetrahydrofuran 


56.70 


103. 


Polyether 


8.60 


122. 


Transformer oil 


9.80 


104. 


Polyethylene 


8.60 


123. 


Tri ethyl amine 


8.60 


105. 


Polystyrene 


8.60 


124. 


2-2-5 Trimethylthexane 


9.46 


106. 


Polyurethane 


8.60 


125. 


White spirit 


9.80 


107. 


Polyvinyl chloride 


8.60 


126. 


Zinc octoate 


9.10 



Table 12 HFC 227ea Design Concentration for 
Inerting 

[ Clause 8(e) ] 



Table 13 Atmospheric Correction Factors 

[ Clause 8(g) ] 



SI No. Material 

(1) (2) 

i) Acetone 

ii) Benzene 

iii) Methane 

iv) ^-Heptane 

v) Propane 

vi) Methyl ethyl ketone 



Percent by Volume 

(3) 

8.5 
12.5 

8.8 

8.6 
12.8 
15.0 



b) The discharge time required to achieve 
95 percent of the minimum design 
concentration for flame extinguishment 
based on a 20 percent safety factor shall not 
exceed 10 s. 



c) Flow calculations performed in accordance 
with 12, or in accordance with the approved 
pre-engineered systems, shall be used to 
demonstrate the discharge time requirements 
stated above. 

11 STORAGE CONTAINERS 

The HFC 227ea storage containers conforming to 
IS 7285 shall comply with the following in 
addition to various requirements contained 
in IS 15493: 



SI No. 

(1) 

i) 

ii) 

iii) 

iv) 

v) 

vi) 

vii) 

viii) 

ix) 

x) 

xi) 

xii) 

xiii) 

xiv) 



Equivalent 
Altitude 

m 

(2) 

-920 

-610 

-300 



300 

610 

910 
I 220 
I 520 

1 830 

2 130 
2 440 

2 740 

3 050 



Enclosure 
Pressure 

mm Hg 

(3) 
840 
812 
787 
760 
733 
705 
678.9 
650 
622 
596 
570 
550 
528 
505 



Atmospheric 

Correction 

Factor 

(4) 

1.11 

1.07 

1.04 

1.00 

0.96 

0.93 

0.89 

0.86 

0.82 

0.78 

0.75 

0.72 

0.69 

0.66 



a) The containers used in HFC 227ea systems 
shall be seamless cylinders designed, 
fabricated, inspected and certified in 
accordance with the requirements of 
Chief Controller of Explosives, Nagpur. 

b) The design pressure shall be suitable for the 



IS 15517 : 2004 



maximum pressure developed at 65°C or at 
the maximum controlled temperature limit. 

c) The containers shall be charged to a filling 
ratio ( fill density ) not greater than 1 150 kg/ 
m 3 (1.15 kg/1 ) and not less than 500 kg/m 3 
(0.5 kg/1). 

d) The containers shall be superpressurized 
with nitrogen ( moisture content not greater 
than 0.006 percent by volume ) to a total 
pressure of either 2.5 MPa ± 5 percent or at 
4.2 MPa ± 5 percent measured at 21 ± 1 °C. 

e) The storage containers shall have reliable 
means of indicating their pressure. The 
storage containers shall have reliable 
means of indicating the variation of container 
pressure with temperature. A pressure/ 
temperature chart ( see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 ) 
attached to the container, is acceptable 

12 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

The HFC 227ea distribution system shall comply with 
the following in addition to various requirements 
contained in IS 15493. 

12.1 Piping Network 

a) The piping shall withstand the maximum 
expected pressure at the maximum storage 
temperature, as follows: 

1) 2.5 MPa systems : 4.19MPaat55°C 

2) 4.2 MPa systems : 6.58 MPa at 55°C 

b) Carbon steel pipes and fittings shall be 
galvanized inside and outside or otherwise 
suitably protected against corrosion. 
Stainless steel pipes and fittings may be 
used without corrosion protection. 

c) The piping shall withstand the maximum 
developed pressure at 55°C and shall be in 
accordance with IS 15493. 

NOTE — Stainless steel pipes may be used in all 
applications subject to appropriate design strength 
calculations. 

12.2 Piping Fittings 

a) Pipe fittings shall comply with the 
requirements given in IS 15493. 

b) Fittings shall be selected according to the 
wall thickness or schedule number of the pipe 
to which they are intended to be fitted. 

12.3 Pipe Sizing 

Pipe sizing is a complex issue, particularly in view of 
the two-phase flow within the pipe lines. Too small a 
bore results in excessive pressure losses while too 
large a bore reduces the liquid flow velocity. This 



also may result in excess pressure drops and lower 
flow rates. Table 1 4 may be used as a guide to estimate 
pipe sizes. The sizes can be checked using an approved 
computer flow calculation programme. 

Table 14 Pipe Sizes versus Flow Rate 
(Informative) 



SI No. 


Nominal 
Pipe Size 


Nominal Design 


Flow Rate, kg 




Minimum 


Maximum 




m m 






(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


i) 


10 


1.2 


4.4 


ii) 


15 


2.2 


6.6 


iii) 


20 


4.4 


12.1 


iv) 


25 


7.8 


18.7 


v) 


32 


13.3 


27.5 


vi) 


40 


19.9 


44.1 


vii) 


50 


31.0 


66.1 


viii) 


65 


44.1 


121.3 


ix) 


80 


66.2 


198.5 


x) 


100 


121.3 


275.5 


xi) 


125 


198.5 


440.9 


xii) 


150 


254.6 


661.3 



12.4 Nozzle Placement 

a) The type of nozzles selected, their number 
and placement shall be such that the design 
concentration will be established in all parts 
of the protected enclosure and such that the 
discharge will not unduly splash flammable 
liquids or create dust clouds that could extend 
the fire, create an explosion, or otherwise 
adversely affect the contents or the integrity 
of the enclosure. 

b) Selecting the number of nozzles in a system 
shall take into account, the shape of the 
enclosure ( Area and volume ), shape of the 
void ( Raised floor, suspended ceiling ). 
Installed equipment in the enclosure/void 
( Chimney effect ), allowed pressure at the 
restrictor, ( Pipe quality ), obstructions, 
which may affect the distribution of the 
discharged agent and architectural 
considerations. 

c) Nozzles shall be selected and located to 
protect an area less than its area of 
coverage. The area of coverage to the type 
of nozzle shall be so listed for the 
purpose. 

d) In hazards having suspended ceiling, 
consideration shall be given for having 
nozzles installed in the ceiling void 



IS 15517 : 2004 



( simultaneous discharge ) in order to 
equalize the pressure during discharge, thus 
reducing the risk of unnecessary damaging 
ceiling tiles, etc. 

e) In hazards having raised floor ( not gas- 
tight ) consideration shall be given for 
having nozzles installed in the floor 
void ( simultaneous discharge ) in order to 
equalize the pressure and obtain 
extinguishing concentration below the 
floor. 

t) In hazards having suspended ceiling, 
nozzles for protecting rooms void shall 
be installed in such a way that the jets from 
the nozzles do not damage the ceiling 
plated excessively during discharge, that is, 
the nozzles to be positioned vertically with 
the discharge holes free of the ceiling tiles 
and/or Escutcheon plates. For light weight 
ceiling tiles, it may be recommended to 
securely anchor tiles for a minimum of 1 .5 m 
from each discharge nozzle. 

g) Maximum nozzle height above floor level 
for a single row of nozzles is 3.5 m. Where 
ceiling height ( of the protected enclosure ) 
exceeds 3.5 m, an additional row of nozzles 
shall be provided for uniform and faster 
distribution of the agent within the 
enclosure. 

h) Minimum nozzle height above the floor 
void level of the hazard shall be 
adequately provided. 

j) The maximum distance between nozzles 
should not exceed 6 m and the maximum 
distance to wall/partition should not 
exceed 3 m. 

k) In case of enclosures having no false 
ceiling, nozzles can be located on the 
ceiling anywhere within 0.5 to 5 m from the 
walls. In case of enclosures having false 
ceilings, deflector shields shall be used with 
each nozzle and also nozzles shall be so 
located ( with an anticipation of 
dislodgement of false ceiling materials or 
any movable objects in the path of 
discharge ) to prevent any damage thereto. 

m) Nozzles shall be provided in all the 
concealed spaces, floor voids, ceiling voids, 
etc, besides the main area within the 
protected enclosure. 

13 HYDRAULICS OF THE SYSTEM 

13.1 General 



shall be employed to predict pipe sizes, nozzle 
pressure, agent flow rate, discharge per 
nozzle and the discharge time. 

b) The various parameters as stated below shall 
be considered to determine the following 
minimum limits of accuracy: 

1) The weight of agent predicted by flow 
calculation to discharge from the nozzle 
should agree with the total weight of 
agent actually discharged from each 
nozzle in the system within a range of 
-5 percent to +10 percent of actual 
prediction. 

2) The discharge time predicted by the 
flow calculation method should agree 
with the actual discharge time from each 
nozzle in the system. 

3) The accuracy of the calculated nozzle 
pressures versus actual pressures at 
each nozzle should be such that actual 
nozzle pressures in an installation will 
not fall outside the range required for 
acceptable nozzle performance. 

4) The nozzle pressure should not fall 
below the minimum or above the 
maximum nozzle pressure required for 
the nozzle to uniformly distribute 
the agent throughout the volume from 
which nozzle's discharge is to protect. 

13.2 HFC 227ea Agent in Pipe Work 

The HFC 227ea flows through the distribution 
system in both liquid and vapour phase. As the liquid 
phase flows through the distribution system the 
pressure continues to drop, causing the liquid to boil. 
The volume of the vapour phase increases with the 
decreasing pressure and hence the density of the 
mixture drops. To maintain a constant flow rate, the 
speed through the distribution system must 
continuously increase down the pipe work. The 
pressure drop for a given flow rate is not linear, as it 
is with water, but is variable along the pipe. 

13.3 Density of HFC 227ea in Distribution System 

Using the thermodynamic properties of the 
HFC 227ea, including the nitrogen used for super- 
pressurization, the density of the two-phase mixture 
in the distribution system can be calculated. The density 
of the HFC 227ea leaving the storage container varies 
over the course of the discharge. The density is 
lowest at the start of discharge and increases until 
the last of the liquid leaves the container. 



13.4 Temperature 

a) An approved hydraulic calculation method The drop in container pressure as the HFC 227ea 

11 



IS 155.17 : 2004 



flows from the container causes remaining 
HFC 227ea in the container to cool. As a result, 
liquid, that is, below ambient temperature is 
introduced to the distribution system. During a 
system discharge the temperature of the HFC 227ea 
leaving the storage container recedes as a function 
of instantaneous container pressure. 

13.5 Initial Vapour Time 

At the start of discharge virtually all the liquid phase 
HFC 227ea entering the distribution system is 
vapourized before it reaches the nozzles, due to heating 
by the pipe work and the initial low pressure in the 
system. The initial vapourization limits the flow of 
HFC 227ea through the distribution system because 
the mass flow of vapour is much lower than that of 
liquid. 

13.6 Liquid Flow 

There is a significant delay between the opening of 
the discharge valve and the first appearance of liquid 
at the nozzles. Some of the delay is due to the flow 
restriction presented by the container and distribution 
system, however much of delay is due to the initial 
vapour phase flow of the HFC 227ea. 

13.7 Phase Separation 

The flow of HFC 227ea in the distribution system 
is a two-phase flow ( containing both liquid and 
vapour ). In a properly sized distribution system 
the flow will be highly turbulent throughout 
the system and the two phases will mix 
homogeneously. If the pipes are too big the phases 



may tend to separate, which can cause a variety of 
flow problems and can in some cases result in a reduced 
flow rate. 

13.8 Average Pressure Conditions 

Pressure at the nozzle is not constant throughout 
discharge because the pressure in the storage 
container is constantly decreasing. If one were to 
attempt manual calculation it would be desirable to 
use an average pressure condition. It is difficult to 
arrive at an average as the volume of piping has a 
marked effect on the average nozzle ( pressure, 
density and velocity conditions ), all of which have a 
marked effect on discharge quantities and times. 

13.9 Average Nozzle Pressure 

The nozzle pressure used for calculations is the 
pressure when half the liquid phase has been 
discharged from the nozzle. The timing of this is 
used to calculate an average pressure drop in the 
distribution system. To calculate the correct storage 
container pressure, allowance must be made for the 
amount of liquid in the piping system. 

13.10 Percent in Distribution System 

The points outlined above are taken into 
consideration to calculate the average container 
pressure during discharge. Figure 3 shows how the 
ratio of the pipe volume to the volume of HFC 227ea 
supply expanded under flowing conditions varies 
with average container pressure. The former quantity 
shall be referred to as percent-in-the-pipe. 



x 

o y 
z ^ 



2 



co O 
f- > 

C/3 LU 
U_ G- 

e< 

LLJ O 



Q°U] 

a. q: 
2 < 



45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 




































































\ 


































yS^ PI 


ERCENTOF" 


l"OTAL PIPE > 


/OLUME PE 


RCENTAGE 


IN PIPE -45°/ 


'o 



































45 



50 



55 



60 65 70 

PERCENTAGE IN PIPE 



75 



80 



85 



Fig. 3 Percent in HFC 227ea in Pipe 
12 



IS 15517 :2004 



13.11 Engineered and Pre-engineered Systems 

a) General — HFC 227ea is suitable for use 
in both engineered ( central storage ) 
systems and pre-engineered ( modular 
or packaged ) systems, as described 
in 13.3(b) and 13.3(c). 

b) Engineered — An engineered system 
uses large storage containers installed in a 
central location. The containers are 
manifold together and a single pipe feeds the 
nozzle located inside the hazard area. 
Predicting pipe pressure losses and 
designing nozzle orifice sizes require 
complex flow calculations for both 
HFC 227ea and nitrogen phases, which 
takes into account the minimum and 
maximum volumes or the enclosure. 

c) Pre-engineered — A pre-engineered system 
involves a single container with a maximum 
of two nozzles and a small piping network. 
This system can be multiplied to cover larger 
volume areas. The larger area is viewed as a 
number of smaller areas each protected by a 
single modular unit. 

14 COMMISSIONING AND ACCEPTANCE 
TESTING 

14.1 Criteria for Acceptance 

The completed HFC 227ea total flooding system 



shall be commissioned in accordance 
with IS 15493. 

14.2 Cross-check various observed parameters 
with the respective operating clause to ensure 
conformity. 

14.3 Recommissioning 

Restore all systems to a fully operational status. 

14.4 Reporting 

The following shall be reported: 

a) Information identifying the system shall 
include: 

1) Installation, designer and contractor; 

2) Enclosure identifications; 

3) Enclosure temperature prior to 
discharge; 

4) Oxygen and carbon dioxide residual 
concentrations; and 

5) Position of sampling points. 

b) Date and time of test. 

c) Discharge time. 

d) Concentration levels at each sampling point 
at 1 and 10 min from the commencement of 
discharge. 

e) System deficiencies. 



13 



IS 15517 : 2004 



ANNEX A 

( Table 2 ) 

DETERMINATION OF PURITY OF HFC 227ea 



A-l Percent purity of HFC 227ea is determined by 
gas chromatograph 

A-2 APPARATUS REQUIRED 

The following special apparatus is required to 
determine the percent purity of HFC 227ea: 

a) Gas chromatograph — Capable of 
programmed temperature operation and 
equipped with a Thermal Conductivity 
Detector (TCD). 

b) Column — 3.1 m by 5 mm outside diameter 
( 2.6 mm inner diameter ) glass tubing, packed 
with 80-120 mesh Carbopack B or equivalent. 

c) Gas sampling valve — 10 ml volume or a 
volume sufficient to achieve proper 
separation in the specified column. 

d) Sample containers with luer lock fittings — 
To connect the sample container with 
automatic gas valve. 

A-3 REAGENTS 

A-3.1 The carrier gas shall be chromatographic 
grade of helium. The column packing shall consist 
of a standard solution, for example, 3 percent ( weight/ 
weight ) methyl silicone on 80 - 120 mesh Carbopack 
B ( or equivalent ). 

A-4 PROCEDURE 

A-4.1 Install the column and adjust the temperature 
of the column oven to 30°C, injection port to 100°C, 
and detector block to 1 50°C. The temperature should 



be programmed to rise 1 to 1 5°C/min ( from an initial 
temperature of 30°C ), to a maximum of 1 00°C. 

A-4. 2 Adjust the helium flow to 25 ml/min. 

A-4.3 Adjust the detector voltage to 8 V or to a mid- 
range of the TCD instrument being used and allow 
the instrument to stabilize. 

A-4. 4 Evacuate the sampling cylinder completely 
with no air inside and take the sample from the vapour 
phase with the help of hose from a given source and 
connect the sample cylinder to GC and ensure that 
there is no leakage. Allow the sample to go the 
chromatograph system after opening the knob to the 
sample cylinder. Allow the sample to elute for 20 min 
attenuating as necessary to make the peak heights a 
convenient size. Under proper instrument settings 
the HFC 227ea should elute after 5 min. 

A-5 CALCULATION 

A-5.1 Calculate percent HFC 227ea as follows: 

A(CF 3 CHFCF 3 )xl00 



Percent HFC 227ea 



A, 



where 

A(CFXHFCF 3 ) = area ofthe HFC 227ea peak, 
and 

A = sum ofthe area of all peaks, 

excluding nitrogen peak. 

A-5.2 The percentage of HFC 227ea shall be determined 
from the resulting chromatograph by comparison with 
the standard graph ( see Fig. 4 ). 



IT) 

in 
o 
in 



in n oo 

OO O) CO 

oo co tj- 

d c\i oo 




TIME (minutes) 



Fig. 4 Standard Gas Crotmatograph of HFC 227ea 
14 



IS 15517 : 2004 



ANNEX B 
( Clause 9 ) 

DISCHARGE TEST 



B-l Discharge test be limited to only where it is 
legal requirement otherwise enclosure integrity test 
be done. This sets out a proceduce to determine 
compliance of the HFC 227ea total flooding 
system with the requirements for discharge time, 
concentration and holding time. 

B-2 PRINCIPLE 

The system is operated, discharge time is measured 
and concentration readings are taken at a specified 
height at nominated periods. 

B-2.1 Test Medium 

The test medium shall be HFC 227ea gas. 

B-2. 2 Apparatus 

The following apparatus is required: 

a) A chart recorder type concentration meter 
calibrated in strict accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

b) A suitable time-measuring device. 

c) Temperature-measuring equipment. 

B-3 PROCEDURE 

The procedure shall be as follows: 

a) Ensure that the preliminary checks, in 
accordance with IS 15493 have been 
completed. 

b) Electrically isolate all HFC 227ea systems 
serving adjacent enclosures. 



c) Locate sampling points in the enclosure 
at the specified heights ( see 8 ). Do not 
locate sampling points nearer than 200 mm 
to ceiling unless the combustibles being 
protected extend within that area, in which 
case special design considerations may be 
necessary. 

NOTE — If more than one space or 
compartment is being simultaneously protected, 
locate a sampling point in each space in 
accordance with the above criteria. Additional 
sampling points may be required by the 
appropriate authority. Where the geometry of 
the enclosure does not lend itself to sampling in 
the above manner, take a minimum of three 
samples at locations agreed upon by the appropriate 
authority. 

d) Set the continuous chart recorder type 
concentration meter for HFC 227ea and 
check that meter is calibrated in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions so 
that it will record concentration levels at 
each sampling point for 10 min from 
commencement of discharge. 

e) Record temperature in enclosure. 

f) Ensure that plant which is capable of 
affecting system performance, for example, 
air-handling plant in its normal operating 
mode. 

g) Activate the system and record the discharge 
time ( see 8 ). 

h) Record concentration readings and holding 
times ( see 9 ). 



15